Waterproofing is the technique that makes a fabric water and wind resistant. These properties can be achieved by treating with water-repelling substances or through the use of a mechanically-activated hydrophic/microporous membrane. Waterproofing is expressed in millimeters, which represent the water column height the fabric can withstand before liquid penetrates.
Thermo-taping involves the hot application of a seam tape on the back of the fabric to prevent water from entering through the micro-holes in the seams. The total waterproofing of a garment is guaranteed by using waterproof fabric and thermo-taping the seams.
The fabric undergoes a chemical treatment that gives it a water repellent surface.
A breathable fabric allows the perspiration produced by physical activity to pass through it. The breathable nature of the fabric promotes biological breathability which allows body moisture to be expelled easily, thereby decreasing condensation from perspiration, increasing comfort. A breathable fabric measures the water vapor, expressed in grams, that crosses an area of 1 square meter in 24 hours (g/m2-day).
By windproof we mean that the fabric cannot be penetrated by strong winds. The windproof feature helps to maintain body heat, prevent sudden changes in temperature and increase comfort.